How do programmatic policies impact clientelism? Leveraging the exogenous assignment of the snow subsidy in Japan, we show that programmatic policies reduce the cost of exiting a clientelistic relationship. As a result, incumbents need to funnel even more clientelistic goods toward beneficiaries. Thus, programmatic policies can lead to a concentration of clientelistic resources on beneficiaries, with deleterious consequences for everyone else.
Does regime transition have a long-lasting effect on political preferences? We utilize repeated cross-sectional surveys and present robust evidence that those who experienced a regime change tend to show more conservative preferences later in life.